Introduction to the Unix Cluster. Node: NetScape

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9.4: NetScape

NetScacpe is another Internet World Wide Web browser. It is a tool to obtain and display information. It can provide all the functions given by Gopher, News Readers and FTP programs.

We have the NetScacpe for the X Window System installed on our Unix Cluster. To run it on any node, type:

netscape &

A NetScacpe window will open. To obtain online information, simply click on the proper button.

To logout of NetScape, click on File on the command bar and drag to Exit.

9.5: Mpeg (Orion only)

mpeg creates movies that you can view with mpeg_play. You'll also need to use the program ppmtoyuvsplit to get your frames into a form that mpeg likes. To run it, type: mpeg at the prompt.

9.6: Answerbook

In addition to the conventional man pages, much of the documentation on Sun Solaris systems is accessible via the "answerbook" program. This includes reference manuals for Fortran 77, Fortran 90, C, etc.

Answerbook requires that your X display support PostScript. This means:

(1) You are sitting at the console of a Solaris machine. In this case, just run


(you need to have /usr/openwin/bin in your PATH)

(2) On other X displays, you need to run a "Display PostScript Agent". Here's how:

execnx & answerbook

You only need to run execnx once per X session. And it's not necessary to run answerbook on the same machine that you run execnx.

In addition to the conventional man pages, much of the documentation on Sun Solaris systems is accessible via the "answerbook" program. This includes reference manuals for Fortran 77, Fortran 90, C, etc.

9.7: IMSL Fortran Numerical Libraries

Version 3.0 of the IMSL Fortran Numerical Libraries have been installed on the Unix Cluster. This offers functionality similar to the NAG numerical library.

Here's how to link to the library with the different software platforms that we have

Solaris usage: f77 -o test test.f -L/usr/local/lib -R/usr/local/lib -R/opt/SUNWspro/lib -limsl -lsocket

OSF/1 usage: f77 -o test test.f -limsl

SunOS usage: /usr/lang/f77 -o test test.f -limsl # f77 1.x or /usr/lang/new/f77 -o test test.f -L/usr/local/lib/new -limsl # f77 3.x

The two different options for SunOS are for the two different version of the Fortran compiler under SunOS. Most people will probably want to use the first form.

For documentation on the IMSL routines themselves, run the program


For more details on how to compile and link with IMSL, see /usr/local/vni/notes/fnl/README.

9.8: Sendfax

Members of the Theory Division may use this to send faxes. (It may be possible to allow others to use it to send faxes which don't involve a toll call--this is still under investigation. The fax(1) command is also available to sending faxes via the Campus fax gateway.)

Anyone may use it to receive a fax.

The advantages of using this fax service compared to a regular fax machine are:


Here's how to send a fax:

  sendfax -d "name@number" file...

where name is the recipient's name (which appears on the cover sheet), number is the phone number and file... is one or more files to be sent. This and the other fax commands work on any Unix Cluster computer except for

The phone number may be in one of two forms

(a) international standard: + country-code area-code number, e.g., +1-609-243-2662 (the Theory Division's regular FAX number) +44-1235-868-554 (somewhere in the UK)

what you would have to dial, e.g., 2662 9-011-44-1235-868-554

The forms in (a) and (b) are equivalent, since the fax software knows how to strip off local prefixes (including how to deal with PPPL and PU extensions). The hyphens are optional. The "+" in (a) is required. Letters can be used instead of digits, e.g., +1-800-FLY-PANAM.

Pauses in the dialing sequence (e.g., to wait for a second dial tone) are indicated by a comma (= 1 second). Calling card numbers should be surrounded in #'s to prevent their being listed on the cover sheet.

Acceptable files to send via sendfax are: text PostScript TeX DVI files tiff The last file format is the one used internally by the fax software. See later for how to view and print tiff files.

TeX files are converted with dvips -P fax

which uses fonts whose resolution matches that of high-resolution faxes (204 x 196 dots/in).

Multiple recipients can be specified with multiple -d's. Other useful options for sendfax (should normally go BEFORE the -d options) are: -n suppress cover page -D notify when sent (default is to notify only on error) -r specify subject for cover page -c specify comments for cover page

For more details see sendfax(1).

Use faxstat -s to list the status of jobs awaiting transmission. Use faxstat -d to list the jobs that have been completed. See faxstat(1) for details.

Use faxrm id to cancel transmission of fax, where "id" is the job id (shown by sendfax and faxstat). See faxrm(1).


Tell the sender of the fax to use +1-609-243-3438 as the fax number.

9.9: Procmail

procmail(1) is a convenient filter for your incoming E-mail. It allows you

This is all based on matches made to various fields in the header.

For the full documenation, see the man pages procmail(1), procmailrc(5), procmailex(5).

A couple of tips for using procmail on the Unix cluster:

9.10: Basis

Basis 11.5 has been installed on the Solaris machines in the PPPL Unix Cluster. basis is an interactive scientific computer interface developed at LLNL. See for details.

To use basis, you need to set

     setenv BASIS_ROOT /usr/local/basis 
     BASIS_ROOT=/usr/local/basis export BASIS_ROOT)

basis and related program may then be found in `$BASIS_ROOT/bin'.

9.11: NCAR Graphics

NCAR Graphics version 4.0.1 is now installed on the Unix Cluster. It is the recommended plotting library for the FORTRAN library.

In order to use this version of NCAR Graphics, you need to do (as before)

setenv NCARG_ROOT /usr/local


The documentation is available via the WWW at URL

Postscript versions of the documentation are available in


SOURCES: The sources for this version of NCAR Graphics are in



On SunOS 4.x systems (lyman, suntsu, carl, orion), you need to use f77-2.0.1 to compile your program (not f77 or f77-1.4). The scripts ncargf77 and nhlf77 are set up to use f77-2.0.1.

Unfortunately f77-2.0.1 may not be able link against other libraries compiled with f77. If this is a problem, I suggest using one of the Solaris systems (draco, lupus, ron, tom, ead03).


To get to the older versions (3.2 and 4.0) of NCAR Graphics, you need to defined NCARG_ROOT as follows:

setenv NCARG_ROOT /usr/local/ncarg.3.2 setenv NCARG_ROOT /usr/local/ncarg.4.0

In addition, you will need to include $NCARG_ROOT/bin in your definition of PATH, before /usr/local/bin.

9.12: Enscript

This translates text into postscript.Allows, e.g., 2 col printing in landscape mode, duplex printing(if the printer supports it), headings, various forms of highlighting. Documented via the man page enscript(1).

9.13: Python

Python is a high-level modern programming language; it is interpreted, interactive, and object-oriented. It is often compared to Tcl, Perl, Scheme or Java. There is a Numerical extension to it which gives it array and mathematical capabilities similar to IDL or Matlab. It has an interface to Gist, a nice graphics package in Yorick which is well-designed for scientific applications, and an interface to the Tk package for developing GUI's. In essense, Python is a kind of a free IDL, with a more modern OO-capable interface.

Further information on Python can be found at

9.14: Matlab

Matlab is a language created specifically to ease the creation of programs that involve a great deal of math or are needed for the development of algorithims. To activate matlab, type matlab at the prompt. If you need further information on matlab, type helpwin immediately after starting the application.

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