Maxima Manual. Node: Definitions for Simplification
5.1: Definitions for Simplification
- Function: APPLY_NOUNS
causes the application of noun forms in an
expression. E.g. EXP:'DIFF(X^2/2,X); APPLY_NOUNS(EXP); gives X. This
gives the same result as EV(EXP,NOUNS); except that it can be faster
and use less storage. It also can be used in translated code, where
EV may cause problems. Note that it is called APPLY_NOUNS, not
EV_NOUNS, because what it does is to APPLY the rules corresponding to
the noun-form operators, which is not evaluation.
- Variable: ASKEXP
default:  contains the expression upon which ASKSIGN is
called. A user may enter a MACSYMA break with ^A and inspect this
expression in order to answer questions asked by ASKSIGN.
- Function: ASKINTEGER
exp is any valid macsyma expression
and optional-arg is EVEN,ODD,INTEGER and defaults to INTEGER if not
given. This function attempts to determine from the data-base whether
exp is EVEN, ODD or just an INTEGER. It will ask the user if it
cannot tell otherwise and attempt to install the information in the
data-base if possible.
- Function: ASKSIGN
first attempts to determine whether the specified
expression is positive, negative, or zero. If it cannot, it asks the
user the necessary questions to complete its deduction. The user's
answer is recorded in the data base for the duration of the current
computation (one "C-line"). The value of ASKSIGN is one of POS, NEG,
- Variable: DEMOIVRE
default: [FALSE] if TRUE will cause
%E^(A+B*%I) ==> %E^A*(COS(B)+%I*SIN(B))
if B is free of %I. A and B are not expanded.
DEMOIVRE:TRUE; is the way to reverse the effect of
DEMOIVRE(exp) will cause the conversion without setting the switch or
having to re-evaluate the expression with EV.
- Variable: DOMAIN
default: [REAL] - if set to COMPLEX, SQRT(X^2) will remain
SQRT(X^2) instead of returning ABS(X). The notion of a "domain" of
simplification is still in its infancy, and controls little more than
this at the moment.
- Function: EXPAND
will cause products of sums and exponentiated sums to be
multiplied out, numerators of rational expressions which are sums to
be split into their respective terms, and multiplication (commutative
and non-commutative) to be distributed over addition at all levels of
exp. For polynomials one should usually use RATEXPAND which uses a
more efficient algorithm (see DESCRIBE(RATEXPAND);).
MAXNEGEX and MAXPOSEX control the maximum negative and
positive exponents, respectively, which will expand.
EXPAND(exp,p,n) expands exp, using p for MAXPOSEX and n for MAXNEGEX.
This is useful in order to expand part but not all of an expression.
EXPON - the exponent of the largest negative power which is
automatically expanded (independent of calls to EXPAND). For example
if EXPON is 4 then (X+1)**(-5) will not be automatically expanded.
EXPOP - the highest positive exponent which is automatically
expanded. Thus (X+1)**3, when typed, will be automatically expanded
only if EXPOP is greater than or equal to 3. If it is desired to have
(X+1)**N expanded where N is greater than EXPOP then executing
EXPAND((X+1)**N) will work only if MAXPOSEX is not less than N.
The EXPAND flag used with EV (see EV) causes expansion.
The file SHARE1;FACEXP FASL contains several related functions
(FACSUM and COLLECTTERMS are two) that provide the user with the
ability to structure expressions by controlled expansion.
Brief function descriptions are available in SHARE1;FACEXP USAGE.
A demo is available by doing BATCH("facexp.mc")$ .
- Function: EXPANDWRT
expands exp with respect to the vari.
All products involving the vari appear explicitly. The form returned
will be free of products of sums of expressions that are not free of
the vari. The vari may be variables, operators, or expressions. By
default, denominators are not expanded, but this can be controlled by
means of the switch EXPANDWRT_DENOM. Do LOAD(STOPEX); to use this
- Variable: EXPANDWRT_DENOM
default:[FALSE] controls the treatment of rational
expressions by EXPANDWRT. If TRUE, then both the numerator and
denominator of the expression will be expanded according to the
arguments of EXPANDWRT, but if EXPANDWRT_DENOM is FALSE, then only the
numerator will be expanded in that way. Do LOAD(STOPEX) to use.
- Function: EXPANDWRT_FACTORED
(exp, var1, var2, ..., varN)
is similar to
EXPANDWRT, but treats expressions that are products somewhat
differently. EXPANDWRT_FACTORED will perform the required expansion
only on those factors of exp that contain the variables in its argument list
argument list. Do LOAD(STOPEX) to use this
- Variable: EXPON
default:  - the exponent of the largest negative power which
is automatically expanded (independent of calls to EXPAND). For
example if EXPON is 4 then (X+1)**(-5) will not be automatically
- Variable: EXPONENTIALIZE
default: [FALSE] if TRUE will cause all circular and
hyperbolic functions to be converted to exponential form. (Setting
DEMOIVRE:TRUE; will reverse the effect.)
EXPONENTIALIZE(exp) will cause the conversion to exponential form of an
expression without setting the switch or having to re-evaluate the
expression with EV.
- Variable: EXPOP
default:  - the highest positive exponent which is
automatically expanded. Thus (X+1)**3, when typed, will be
automatically expanded only if EXPOP is greater than or equal to 3.
If it is desired to have (X+1)**n expanded where n is greater than
EXPOP then executing EXPAND((X+1)**n) will work only if MAXPOSEX is
not less than n.
- Variable: FACTLIM
default: [-1] gives the highest factorial which is
automatically expanded. If it is -1 then all integers are expanded.
- Function: INTOSUM
will take all things that a summation is multiplied
by, and put them inside the summation. If the index is used in the
outside expression, then the function tries to find a reasonable
index, the same as it does for SUMCONTRACT. This is essentially the
reverse idea of the OUTATIVE property of summations, but note that it
does not remove this property, it only bypasses it. In some cases, a
SCANMAP(MULTTHRU,expr) may be necessary before the INTOSUM.
- declaration: LASSOCIATIVE
- If DECLARE(G,LASSOCIATIVE); is done, this tells the
simplifier that G is left-associative. E.g. G(G(A,B),G(C,D)) will
simplify to G(G(G(A,B),C),D).
- declaration: LINEAR
- One of MACSYMA's OPPROPERTIES. For univariate f so
declared, "expansion" F(X+Y) -> F(X)+F(Y), F(A*X) -> A*F(X) takes
place where A is a "constant". For functions F of >=2 args,
"linearity" is defined to be as in the case of 'SUM or 'INTEGRATE,
i.e. F(A*X+B,X) -> A*F(X,X)+B*F(1,X) for A,B FREEOF X. (LINEAR is
just ADDITIVE + OUTATIVE.)
- declaration: MAINVAR
- You may DECLARE variables to be MAINVAR. The ordering
scale for atoms is essentially: numbers < constants (e.g. %E,%PI) <
scalars < other variables < mainvars. E.g. compare EXPAND((X+Y)^4);
with (DECLARE(X,MAINVAR), EXPAND((X+Y)^4)); . (Note: Care should be
taken if you elect to use the above feature. E.g. if you subtract an
expression in which X is a MAINVAR from one in which X isn't a
MAINVAR, resimplification e.g. with EV(expression,SIMP) may be
necessary if cancellation is to occur. Also, if you SAVE an
expression in which X is a MAINVAR, you probably should also SAVE X.)
- Variable: MAXAPPLYDEPTH
default:  - the maximum depth to which APPLY1
and APPLY2 will delve.
- Variable: MAXAPPLYHEIGHT
default:  - the maximum height to which APPLYB1
will reach before giving up.
- Variable: MAXNEGEX
default:  - the largest negative exponent which will
be expanded by the EXPAND command (see also MAXPOSEX).
- Variable: MAXPOSEX
default:  - the largest exponent which will be
expanded with the EXPAND command (see also MAXNEGEX).
- declaration: MULTIPLICATIVE
- If DECLARE(F,MULTIPLICATIVE) has been executed,
(1) If F is univariate, whenever the simplifier encounters F applied
to a product, F will be distributed over that product. I.e. F(X*Y);
will simplify to F(X)*F(Y).
(2) If F is a function of 2 or more arguments, multiplicativity is
defined as multiplicativity in the first argument to F, i.e.
F(G(X)*H(X),X); will simplify to F(G(X),X)*F(H(X),X).
This simplification does not occur when F is applied to expressions of
the form PRODUCT(X[I],I,lower-limit,upper-limit).
- Variable: NEGDISTRIB
default: [TRUE] - when TRUE allows -1 to be distributed
over an expression. E.g. -(X+Y) becomes -Y-X. Setting it to FALSE
will allow -(X+Y) to be displayed like that. This is sometimes useful
but be very careful: like the SIMP flag, this is one flag you do not
want to set to FALSE as a matter of course or necessarily for other
than local use in your MACSYMA.
- Variable: NEGSUMDISPFLAG
default: [TRUE] - when TRUE, X-Y displays as X-Y
instead of as -Y+X. Setting it to FALSE causes the special check in
display for the difference of two expressions to not be done. One
application is that thus A+%I*B and A-%I*B may both be displayed the
- special symbol: NOEVAL
- suppresses the evaluation phase of EV. This is useful in
conjunction with other switches and in causing expressions
to be resimplified without being reevaluated.
- declaration: NOUN
- One of the options of the DECLARE command. It makes a
function so DECLAREd a "noun", meaning that it won't be evaluated
- Variable: NOUNDISP
default: [FALSE] - if TRUE will cause NOUNs to display with
a single quote. This switch is always TRUE when displaying function
- special symbol: NOUNS
(EVFLAG) when used as an option to the EV command, converts all
"noun" forms occurring in the expression being EV'd to "verbs", i.e.
evaluates them. See also NOUN, NOUNIFY, VERB, and VERBIFY.
- special symbol: NUMER
causes some mathematical functions (including exponentiation)
with numerical arguments to be evaluated in floating point. It causes
variables in exp which have been given numervals to be replaced by
their values. It also sets the FLOAT switch on.
- Function: NUMERVAL
(var1, exp1, var2, exp2, ...)
declares vari to have a
numerval of expi which is evaluated and substituted for the variable
in any expressions in which the variable occurs if the NUMER flag is
TRUE. (see the EV function).
- Variable: OPPROPERTIES
- the list of the special operator-properties handled by
the MACSYMA simplifier: LINEAR, ADDITIVE, MULTIPLICATIVE, OUTATIVE,
EVENFUN, ODDFUN, COMMUTATIVE, SYMMETRIC, ANTISYMMETRIC, NARY,
LASSOCIATIVE, and RASSOCIATIVE.
- Variable: OPSUBST
default:[TRUE] - if FALSE, SUBST will not attempt to
substitute into the operator of an expression. E.g. (OPSUBST:FALSE,
SUBST(X^2,R,R+R)); will work.
- declaration: OUTATIVE
- If DECLARE(F,OUTATIVE) has been executed, then:
(1) If F is univariate, whenever the simplifier encounters F applied
to a product, that product will be partitioned into factors that are
constant and factors that are not and the constant factors will be
pulled out. I.e. F(A*X); will simplify to A*F(X) where A is a
constant. Non-atomic constant factors will not be pulled out.
(2) If F is a function of 2 or more arguments, outativity is defined
as in the case of 'SUM or 'INTEGRATE, i.e. F(A*G(X),X); will simplify
to A*F(G(X),X) for A free-of X.
Initially, 'SUM, 'INTEGRATE, and 'LIMIT are declared to be OUTATIVE.
- declaration: POSFUN
- POSitive FUNction, e.g. DECLARE(F,POSFUN); IS(F(X)>0); ->
- Variable: PRODHACK
default: [FALSE] - if set to TRUE then PRODUCT(F(I),I,3,1);
will yield 1/F(2), by the identity
PRODUCT(F(I),I,A,B) = 1/PRODUCT(F(I),I,B+1,A-1) when A>B.
- Function: RADCAN
simplifies exp, which can contain logs, exponentials, and
radicals, by converting it into a form which is canonical over a large
class of expressions and a given ordering of variables; that is, all
functionally equivalent forms are mapped into a unique form. For a
somewhat larger class of expressions, RADCAN produces a regular form.
Two equivalent expressions in this class will not necessarily have the
same appearance, but their difference will be simplified by RADCAN to
zero. For some expressions RADCAN can be quite time consuming. This
is the cost of exploring certain relationships among the components of
the expression for simplifications based on factoring and
partial-fraction expansions of exponents. %E_TO_NUMLOG (default:
[FALSE]) - when set to TRUE, for "r" some rational number, and "x" some
expression, %E^(r*LOG(x)) will be simplified into x^r .
RADEXPAND[TRUE] when set to FALSE will inhibit certain
transformations: RADCAN(SQRT(1-X)) will remain SQRT(1-X) and will not
become %I SQRT(X-1). RADCAN(SQRT(X^2-2*X+1)) will remain SQRT(X^2-2*X
+ 1) and will not be transformed to X- 1.
Do EXAMPLE(RADCAN); for examples.
- Variable: RADEXPAND
default: [TRUE] - if set to ALL will cause nth roots of
factors of a product which are powers of n to be pulled outside of the
radical. E.g. if RADEXPAND is ALL, SQRT(16*X^2) will become 4*X .
More particularly, consider SQRT(X^2).
(a) If RADEXPAND is ALL or ASSUME(X>0) has been done, SQRT(X^2) will
(b) If RADEXPAND is TRUE and DOMAIN is REAL (its default), SQRT(X^2)
will become ABS(X).
(c) If RADEXPAND is FALSE, or RADEXPAND is TRUE and DOMAIN is COMPLEX,
SQRT(X^2) will be returned.
(The notion of DOMAIN with settings of REAL or COMPLEX is still in
its infancy. Note that its setting here only matters when RADEXPAND is
- Variable: RADPRODEXPAND
- this switch has been renamed RADEXPAND.
- Variable: RADSUBSTFLAG
default: [FALSE] - if TRUE permits RATSUBST to make
substitutions such as U for SQRT(X) in X.
- declaration: RASSOCIATIVE
- If DECLARE(G,RASSOCIATIVE); is done, this tells the
simplifier that G is right-associative. E.g.
G(G(A,B),G(C,D)) will simplify to G(A,G(B,G(C,D))).
- Function: SCSIMP
Simplification [Stoute]) takes an expression (its first argument) and
a set of identities, or rules (its other arguments) and tries
simplifying. If a smaller expression is obtained, the process
repeats. Otherwise after all simplifications are tried, it returns
the original answer. For examples, try EXAMPLE(SCSIMP); .
- Function: SIMP
causes exp to be simplified regardless of the setting of the
switch SIMP which inhibits simplification if FALSE.
- Variable: SIMPSUM
default: [FALSE] - if TRUE, the result of a SUM is
simplified. This simplification may sometimes be able to produce a
closed form. If SIMPSUM is FALSE or if 'SUM is used, the value is a
sum noun form which is a representation of the sigma notation used in
- Function: SUMCONTRACT
will combine all sums of an addition that have
upper and lower bounds that differ by constants. The result will be an
expression containing one summation for each set of such summations
added to all appropriate extra terms that had to be extracted to form
this sum. SUMCONTRACT will combine all compatible sums and use one of
the indices from one of the sums if it can, and then try to form a
reasonable index if it cannot use any supplied. It may be necessary
to do an INTOSUM(expr) before the SUMCONTRACT.
- Variable: SUMEXPAND
default: [FALSE] if TRUE, products of sums and
exponentiated sums are converted into nested sums. For example:
SUM(F(I),I,0,M)^2; -> 'SUM('SUM(F(I3)*F(I4),I4,0,M),I3,0,M)
If FALSE, they are left alone. See also CAUCHYSUM.
- Variable: SUMHACK
default: [FALSE] - if set to TRUE then SUM(F(I),I,3,1); will
yield -F(2), by the identity SUM(F(I),I,A,B) = - SUM(F(I),I,B+1,A-1)
- Variable: SUMSPLITFACT
default: [TRUE] - if set to FALSE will cause
MINFACTORIAL to be applied after a FACTCOMB.
- declaration: SYMMETRIC
- If DECLARE(H,SYMMETRIC); is done, this tells the
simplifier that H is a symmetric function. E.g. H(X,Z,Y) will
simplify to H(X, Y, Z). This is the same as COMMUTATIVE.
- Function: UNKNOWN
returns TRUE iff exp contains an operator or function
not known to the built-in simplifier.