Maxima Manual. Node: Definitions for Trigonometric

13.2: Definitions for Trigonometric

Function: ACOS
- Arc Cosine
Function: ACOSH
- Hyperbolic Arc Cosine
Function: ACOT
- Arc Cotangent
Function: ACOTH
- Hyperbolic Arc Cotangent
Function: ACSC
- Arc Cosecant
Function: ACSCH
- Hyperbolic Arc Cosecant
Function: ASEC
- Arc Secant
Function: ASECH
- Hyperbolic Arc Secant
Function: ASIN
- Arc Sine
Function: ASINH
- Hyperbolic Arc Sine
Function: ATAN
- Arc Tangent
Function: ATAN2 (Y,X)
yields the value of ATAN(Y/X) in the interval -%PI to %PI.
Function: ATANH
- Hyperbolic Arc Tangent
Function: ATRIG1
- SHARE1;ATRIG1 FASL contains several additional simplification rules for inverse trig functions. Together with rules already known to Macsyma, the following angles are fully implemented: 0, %PI/6, %PI/4, %PI/3, and %PI/2. Corresponding angles in the other three quadrants are also available. Do LOAD(ATRIG1); to use them.
Function: COS
- Cosine
Function: COSH
- Hyperbolic Cosine
Function: COT
- Cotangent
Function: COTH
- Hyperbolic Cotangent
Function: CSC
- Cosecant
Function: CSCH
- Hyperbolic Cosecant
Variable: HALFANGLES
default: [FALSE] - if TRUE causes half-angles to be simplified away.
Function: SEC
- Secant
Function: SECH
- Hyperbolic Secant
Function: SIN
- Sine
Function: SINH
- Hyperbolic Sine
Function: TAN
- Tangent
Function: TANH
- Hyperbolic Tangent
Function: TRIGEXPAND (exp)
expands trigonometric and hyperbolic functions of sums of angles and of multiple angles occurring in exp. For best results, exp should be expanded. To enhance user control of simplification, this function expands only one level at a time, expanding sums of angles or multiple angles. To obtain full expansion into sines and cosines immediately, set the switch TRIGEXPAND:TRUE. TRIGEXPAND default: [FALSE] - if TRUE causes expansion of all expressions containing SINs and COSs occurring subsequently. HALFANGLES[FALSE] - if TRUE causes half-angles to be simplified away. TRIGEXPANDPLUS[TRUE] - controls the "sum" rule for TRIGEXPAND, expansion of sums (e.g. SIN(X+Y)) will take place only if TRIGEXPANDPLUS is TRUE. TRIGEXPANDTIMES[TRUE] - controls the "product" rule for TRIGEXPAND, expansion of products (e.g. SIN(2*X)) will take place only if TRIGEXPANDTIMES is TRUE.
```(C1) X+SIN(3*X)/SIN(X),TRIGEXPAND=TRUE,EXPAND;
2           2
(D1)                     - SIN (X) + 3 COS (X) + X
(C2) TRIGEXPAND(SIN(10*X+Y));
(D2)               COS(10 X) SIN(Y) + SIN(10 X) COS(Y)

```
Variable: TRIGEXPANDPLUS
default: [TRUE] - controls the "sum" rule for TRIGEXPAND. Thus, when the TRIGEXPAND command is used or the TRIGEXPAND switch set to TRUE, expansion of sums (e.g. SIN(X+Y)) will take place only if TRIGEXPANDPLUS is TRUE.
Variable: TRIGEXPANDTIMES
default: [TRUE] - controls the "product" rule for TRIGEXPAND. Thus, when the TRIGEXPAND command is used or the TRIGEXPAND switch set to TRUE, expansion of products (e.g. SIN(2*X)) will take place only if TRIGEXPANDTIMES is TRUE.
Variable: TRIGINVERSES
default: [ALL] - controls the simplification of the composition of trig and hyperbolic functions with their inverse functions: If ALL, both e.g. ATAN(TAN(X)) and TAN(ATAN(X)) simplify to X. If TRUE, the arcfunction(function(x)) simplification is turned off. If FALSE, both the arcfun(fun(x)) and fun(arcfun(x)) simplifications are turned off.
Function: TRIGREDUCE (exp, var)
combines products and powers of trigonometric and hyperbolic SINs and COSs of var into those of multiples of var. It also tries to eliminate these functions when they occur in denominators. If var is omitted then all variables in exp are used. Also see the POISSIMP function (6.6).
```(C4) TRIGREDUCE(-SIN(X)^2+3*COS(X)^2+X);
(D4)                        2 COS(2 X) + X + 1
The trigonometric simplification routines will use declared
information in some simple cases.  Declarations about variables are
used as follows, e.g.
(C5) DECLARE(J, INTEGER, E, EVEN, O, ODD)\$
(C6) SIN(X + (E + 1/2)*%PI)\$
(D6)                      COS(X)
(C7) SIN(X + (O + 1/2) %PI);
(D7)                     - COS(X)

```
Variable: TRIGSIGN
default: [TRUE] - if TRUE permits simplification of negative arguments to trigonometric functions. E.g., SIN(-X) will become -SIN(X) only if TRIGSIGN is TRUE.
Function: TRIGSIMP (expr)
employs the identities sin(x)^2 + cos(x)^2 = 1 and cosh(x)^2 - sinh(x)^2 = 1 to simplify expressions containing tan, sec, etc. to sin, cos, sinh, cosh so that further simplification may be obtained by using TRIGREDUCE on the result. Some examples may be seen by doing DEMO("trgsmp.dem"); . See also the TRIGSUM function.
Function: TRIGRAT (trigexp)
gives a canonical simplifyed quasilinear form of a trigonometrical expression; trigexp is a rational fraction of several sin, cos or tan, the arguments of them are linear forms in some variables (or kernels) and %pi/n (n integer) with integer coefficients. The result is a simplifyed fraction with numerator and denominator linear in sin and cos. Thus TRIGRAT linearize always when it is possible.(written by D. Lazard).
```(c1) trigrat(sin(3*a)/sin(a+%pi/3));

(d1) 		        sqrt(3) sin(2 a) + cos(2 a) - 1
```

Here is another example (for which the function was intended); see [Davenport, Siret, Tournier, Calcul Formel, Masson (or in english, Addison-Wesley), section 1.5.5, Morley theorem). Timings are on VAX 780.

```(c4)   c:%pi/3-a-b;

%pi
(d4) 				 - b - a + ---
3

(c5)   bc:sin(a)*sin(3*c)/sin(a+b);

sin(a) sin(3 b + 3 a)
(d5) 			     ---------------------
sin(b + a)

(c6)   ba:bc,c=a,a=c\$

(c7)   ac2:ba^2+bc^2-2*bc*ba*cos(b);

2       2
sin (a) sin (3 b + 3 a)
(d7) -----------------------
2
sin (b + a)

%pi
2 sin(a) sin(3 a) cos(b) sin(b + a - ---) sin(3 b + 3 a)
3
- --------------------------------------------------------
%pi
sin(a - ---) sin(b + a)
3

2	        2	  %pi
sin (3 a) sin (b + a - ---)
3
+ ---------------------------
2	   %pi
sin (a - ---)
3

(c9)   trigrat(ac2);
Totaltime= 65866 msec.  GCtime= 7716 msec.

(d9)
- (sqrt(3) sin(4 b + 4 a) - cos(4 b + 4 a)

- 2 sqrt(3) sin(4 b + 2 a)

+ 2 cos(4 b + 2 a) - 2 sqrt(3) sin(2 b + 4 a) + 2 cos(2 b + 4 a)

+ 4 sqrt(3) sin(2 b + 2 a) - 8 cos(2 b + 2 a) - 4 cos(2 b - 2 a)

+ sqrt(3) sin(4 b) - cos(4 b) - 2 sqrt(3) sin(2 b) + 10 cos(2 b)

+ sqrt(3) sin(4 a) - cos(4 a) - 2 sqrt(3) sin(2 a) + 10 cos(2 a)

- 9)/4

```
Introduction to Trigonometric Trigonometric