Bash Variables Bash Features Aliases
The shell allows arithmetic expressions to be evaluated, as one of
the shell expansions or by the let
builtin.
Evaluation is done in long integers with no check for overflow, though division by 0 is trapped and flagged as an error. The following list of operators is grouped into levels of equalprecedence operators. The levels are listed in order of decreasing precedence.
 +

unary minus and plus 
! ~

logical and bitwise negation 
**

exponentiation 
* / %

multiplication, division, remainder 
+ 

addition, subtraction 
<< >>

left and right bitwise shifts 
<= >= < >

comparison 
== !=

equality and inequality 
&

bitwise AND 
^

bitwise exclusive OR 


bitwise OR 
&&

logical AND 


logical OR 
expr ? expr : expr

conditional evaluation 
= *= /= %= += = <<= >>= &= ^= =

assignment 
Shell variables are allowed as operands; parameter expansion is performed before the expression is evaluated. The value of a parameter is coerced to a long integer within an expression. A shell variable need not have its integer attribute turned on to be used in an expression.
Constants with a leading 0 are interpreted as octal numbers.
A leading `0x
' or `0X
' denotes hexadecimal. Otherwise,
numbers take the form [base#
]n, where base
is a decimal number between 2 and 64 representing the arithmetic
base, and n is a number in that base. If base is
omitted, then base 10 is used.
The digits greater than 9 are represented by the lowercase letters,
the uppercase letters, `_
', and `@
', in that order.
If base is less than or equal to 36, lowercase and uppercase
letters may be used interchangably to represent numbers between 10
and 35.
Operators are evaluated in order of precedence. Subexpressions in parentheses are evaluated first and may override the precedence rules above.
Bash Variables Bash Features Aliases