1. Code Name: BALDUR

2. Category: Global Transport: 1-1/2-D Time Dependent

3. Responsible Physicist: Glenn Bateman

4. Others involved in code development: Currently: Arnold Kritz and Jon Kinsey. There have been at least 20 people invloved over 20 year.

5. One line description: Time-dependent predictive 1-1/2-D transport code

6. Computer systems which code runs on: UNIX workstations, CRAY computers, and PC-platform.

7. Typical running time (if applicable): Typically 10 minutes on an IBM 550 workstation

8. Approximate number of code lines: 50,000 lines

9. Does this code read data files from another code? If so explain. Not currently, but has in the past (eg, TORAY and DEGAS).

10. Does this code produce data files that can be read by another code? If so, explain. Yes, there is RPLOT output that can be automatically converted to concatenated U-files for the ITER Profile Database.

11. 1-2 paragraph description of code: BALDUR is a 1-1/2-dimensional transport code designed to simulate a wide variety of plasma conditions in tokamaks. The BALDUR code follows the time evolution of electron and ion temperatures, charged particle densities (up to two hydrogenic species and up to four impurity species), and the poloidal magnetic flux density as a function of magnetic flux surface. The shapes of the flux surfaces are determined by solving axisymmetric equilibrium force balance equations, given boundary conditions that may be changing with time. BALDUR provides a detailed and self-consistent treatment of neutral hydrogen and impurity transport (influxing neutrals from the wall as well as internal sources), multi-species effects (including an extensive atomic physics package), several forms of auxiliary heating (NBI and prescribed profile), fast alpha particles and fusion heating, plasma compression effects, ripple losses, and scrape-off-layer. There are a wide variety of transport models available. (Currently we are using a Multi-Mode theory-based model.) In addition, there are various options available to treat the axisymmetric effects of large scale instabilities such as sawtooth oscillations, saturated tearing modes, and high-n ballooning modes.

12. Similar codes to this code, and distinguishing differences: WHIST (ORNL), ONETWO (GA)

13. Journal References describing code (up to 3): 1) C.E. Singer, et al, Computer Physics Communications 49 (1988) 275--398. 2) G. Bateman, Chapter 14 in the book "Computer Applications in Plasma Science and Engineering," A. Drobot editor (Springer-Verlag, 1991). 3) J.E. Kinsey, G. Bateman, A.H. Kritz, and A. Redd, "Comparison of two resistive ballooning mode models in transport simulations," Phys. Plasmas 3 (1996) 561--570.

14. New code capabilities planned for next 1-2 years: We are adding more theoretically derived transport models.

15. Code users: G. Bateman, A. Kritz, A. Redd (Lehigh University), J. Kinsey (GA), C.E. Singer (U. Illinois), J. Kesner, L. Sugiyama (MIT).

16. Present and recent applications of code: The standard version of our Multi-Mode Transport model comes closer to predicting experimentally measured temperature and density profiles than any other transport model at the present time.

17. Status of code input/output documentation. Check one: ( ) does not exist ( x ) incomplete ( ) exists

18 Year Code was first used and present frequency of use: 1977 Currently hundreds of runs each year.

19. Estimate of Man-Years invested in developing code: 100

20. Catagories of usage of Code (Check all that apply):

(x) application code to do analysis and prediction of experiments

(x) numerical testbed of theoretical ideas

( ) physics module to be used in integrated modelling

( ) code for machine design

21. Language code is writen in: FORTRAN 90

22. Results of intercomparisons with other codes and results of validation against experiments. When the current standard version of the Multi-Mode transport model is used to predict the temperature and density profiles of more than 40 tokamak discharges, the RMS deviation is 10% to 15% for the temperature and density profiles and the plasma energy content compared with experimental data. No other model matches experimental data this closely. (See 1996 Sixteenth IAEA Fusion Energy Conference paper F1-CN-64/DP-7 by G. Bateman, J. Kinsey, A. Kritz, A. Redd, and J. Weiland).