Status of NOVA codes as of March 2022

    NOVA/NOVA-C (C stands for Constant of Motion extension) is a suite of codes which is based on the ideal MHD, NOVA, solver for perturbative and NOVA-CN is for non-perturbative eigenmodes. Widely used version of the code solves for perturbative modes as well as for the Alfvenic/acoustic continuum which was originally published in Ref.[#1]. A kinetic extension, known as NOVA-K earlier (is now changed to NOVA-C), was subsequently written over years, started in Ref.[#2] with v.1 continued in Ref.[#4] with v.2 and currently being upgraded to v.3.

    Read several papers on NOVA codes which are often used for studying the stability properties of TAE modes. The trapped electron collisional damping is implemented according to Ref.[#3]. Drift kinetic formulation including finite orbit width (FOW) effects of EPs can be found in Ref. [#4]. In that reference based on presented formulation an important result was confirmed numerically that FOW leads to a plateau in the growth rate dependence on the toroidal mode number which limits the number of unstable modes in ITER for example.

    The NOVA codes are widely used to study the linear stability properties of Alfvénic modes and were extensively verified and validated, [#5], [#7].

    General information on how to run NOVA/NOVA-C (up to version 2, i.e. up to 2014ish) can be found on PPPL theory linux cluster at /u/ngorelen/SRC/Equil/Readme for NOVA (including qsolver equilibrium) and at /u/ngorelen/SRC/NOVAK/Readme-K. It is available for many US fusion researchers. Newer, v.3, is version controlled through, but its use need to be coordinated with Dr. N.N. Gorelenkov,
It includes many recent improvements, see below. Most important recent application is coming from ISEP SciDAC and will be used in WDM tools like TRANSP.
Funding sources over the years: DIII-D & Iter department (Hawrilyck, Nazikian ...), NSTX(-U) (Kaye, Menard), ST40 (Kaye) etc.

Recent improvements in NOVA/NOVA-C perturbative simulations.
2022, small improvement is in access of the working files, equou{1,t] which is now kept on /local/ drive. Now the NOVA-C can be run independently on many machines from the same directory.
, Gorelenkov et al., APS invited.
Interfaced with RBQ model.
, Sherwood. Radiative damping for RSAE modes using Yu-Fu parametrization from:
2020, three NBI distribution function sources are incorporated into NOVA-C (v.3&2). With 1 run growth rate & chirping criterion are evaluated. Newer input includes 'b' flag for NBI DF with 3 energy sources, read the Readme file.
2020+(to be finished), a generalization of NBI distribution function has been done within ST40 tasks.
2021, NBI equilibrium solver HPE (aka ESC, Zakharov), to be incorporated into NOVA/NOVA-C (v.3), has being initiated for NSTX-U studies.
2021, Kinetic formulation of adiabatic index is included in NOVA, the publication has been drafted by Fabio de Souza, "Description of Global EGAM in the maximum of local frequency during current rump-up discharges in DIII-D"
2018, Sherwood presentation was given.

Future plans.

    An upgrade of this suite (version 3) is going on. It includes further upgrade to q-solver equilibrium with the rotation and EP anisotropy in arbitrary cross section, called HPE [N.N.Gorelenkov,L.E.Zakharov, Nucl.Fusion, v.58, p.082031 (2018)].
    NOVA-C v.3 is in progress (see this link for the current subtasks for students who want to participate). In the long run it will include the modifications going from the HPE code. It will also include the thermal ion Landau damping in a more consistent manner than it has now.
    NOVA-CN is the ultimate goal/part of this suite to be used in simulations of the quasi-linear code RBQ [N.N.Gorelenkov, V.Duarte et al., Phys.Plasmas (2019) submitted.]. RBQ2D is being heavily developed using Scidac support.

[1] C. Z. Cheng, M. C. Chang, Phys. Fluids 29 (1986) 3695.
[2] C. Z. Cheng, Phys. Reports 211 (1992) 1.
[3] G. Y. Fu, C. Z. Cheng, K. L. Wong, Phys. Fluids B 5 (1993) 4040.
[4] N. N. Gorelenkov, C. Z. Cheng, G. Y. Fu, Phys. Plasmas 6 (1999) 2802.
[5] M. A. Van Zeeland, G. J. Kramer, M. E. Austine et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 97 (2006) 135001.
[6] N. N. Gorelenkov, V. N. Durte, C. Collins,  et al., Phys. Plasmas 26 (2019)  072507.
[7] S. Taimourzadeh, et al., Nucl. Fusion 59 (2019) 066006 .

Other resources on V&V are here page.

At the end of this page one can find a list of publications related to NOVA suite of codes.

1) formulation and examples of its simulations:

ideal MHD part:
@article{ChengPF86, AUTHOR = "C. Z. Cheng and M. S. Chance",
TITLE = "Low-n shear \protect{Alfv\'{e}}n spectra in axisymmetric toroidal plasmas",
JOURNAL = "Phys. Fluids",
VOLUME = "29",
PAGES = "3695--3701",
MONTH = "November",
YEAR = "1986"}

AUTHOR = "C. Z. Cheng",
TITLE = "Kinetic extensions of magnetohydrodynamics for axisymmetric toroidal plasmas",
JOURNAL = "Phys. Reports",
VOLUME = "211",
PAGES = "1--51",
MONTH = "January",
YEAR = "1992"}

New kinetic effects are added (NOVA-C), such as trapped electron collisoinal damping (orbit width effects shown in this paper are not used any more):
G. Y. Fu and C. Z. Cheng and K. L. Wong, "Stability of the
toroidicity-induced \protect{A}lfv\'{e}n eigenmode in axisymmetric
toroidal equilibria", Phys. Fluids B, V.5, pp.4040--4050 (1993);

this paper give a description of the radiative damping implementation in NOVA
"Analysis of alpha particle-driven toroidal Alfven eigenmodes in TFTR deuterium-tritium experiments"
G.-Y. Fu, C.Z. Cheng, Phys.Plasmas, v.3. 4036-4045 (1996).

this paper has accurate orbit width effect described, which are used in NOVA
N. N. Gorelenkov and C. Z. Cheng and G. Y. Fu, "Fast particle finite
orbit width and Larmor radius effects on low-n toroidicity induced
\protect{A}lfv\'{e}n eigenmode excitation", Phys. Plasmas, v.6,
pp. 2802-2807 (1999).  }

here we describe the model for the distribution function of beam ions used in NOVA under the option "l"
AUTHOR = "N. N. Gorelenkov and H. L. Berk and R. V. Budny",
TITLE = "Beam anisotropy effect on \protect{Alfv\'{e}}n eigenmode stability in ITER-like plasmas",
JOURNAL = "Nucl. Fusion",
VOLUME = "45",
PAGES = "226--237",
MONTH = "March",
YEAR = "2005"}

2)  TAE and RSAE radial structures are verified (arguably the best MHD code/experiment comparison).
AUTHOR = "M. A. Van Zeeland and G. J. Kramer and M. E. Austin and R. L. Boivin and W. W. Heidbrin and M. A. Makowski and G. R. McKee and R. Nazikian and W. M. Solomon and G. Wang",
TITLE = "Radial Structure of \protect{Alfv\'{e}}n Eigenmodes in the DIII-D Tokamak through Electron-Cyclotron-Emission Measurements",
JOURNAL = "Phys. Rev. Letters",
VOLUME = "97",
PAGES = "135001-1--135001-4",
MONTH = "September",
YEAR = "2006"}

3) Simulations of TAE observations in TFTR advanced after more theoretical insight was available.

AUTHOR = "R. Nazikian and G. J. Kramer and C. Z. Cheng and N. N. Gorelenkov and H. L. Berk and S. E. Sharapov",
TITLE = "New Interpretation of Alpha-Particle-Driven Instabilities in Deuterium-Tritium Experiments on the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor",
JOURNAL = "Phys. Rev. Lett.",
VOLUME = "91",
PAGES = "125003-1--125003-4",
MONTH = "September",
YEAR = "2003"}

4)  Stability calculations in NSTX for low frequency TAEs and comparisons with high frequency mode observations.

AUTHOR = "N. N. Gorelenkov and E. Belova and H. L. Berk and C. Z. Cheng and E. D. Fredrickson and W. W. Heidbrink and S. Kaye and G. J. Kramer",
TITLE = "Beam ion driven instabilities in National Spherical Tokamak Experiment",
JOURNAL = "Phys. Plasmas",
VOLUME = "11",
PAGES = "2586--2596",
MONTH = "May",
YEAR = "2004"}

5)  Another nice application of NOVA for RSAEs in DIII-D and JET.

AUTHOR = "G. J. Kramer and R. Nazikian and B. Alper and M. de Baar and et. al.",
TITLE = "Interpretation of core localized \protect{Alfv\'{e}}n eigenmodes in DIII-D and Joing European Torus reversed magnetic shear plasmas",
JOURNAL = "Phys. Plasmas",
VOLUME = "13",
PAGES = "056104-1--056104-7",
MONTH = "May",
YEAR = "2006"}

6) Projections to ITER.

AUTHOR = "N. N. Gorelenkov and H. L. Berk and R. V. Budny and C. Z. Cheng and G. Y. Fu and W. W. Heidbrink and G. J. Kramer and D. Meade and R. Nazikian",
TITLE = "Study of thermonuclear \protect{Alfv\'{e}}n instabilities in next step burning plasma proposals",
JOURNAL = "Nucl. Fusion",
VOLUME = "43",
PAGES = "594--605",
MONTH = "July",
YEAR = "2003"}

AUTHOR = "N. N. Gorelenkov and H. L. Berk and R. V. Budny",
TITLE = "Beam anisotropy effect on \protect{Alfv\'{e}}n eigenmode stability in ITER-like plasmas",
JOURNAL = "Nucl. Fusion",
VOLUME = "45",
PAGES = "226--237",
MONTH = "March",
YEAR = "2005"}